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Obstacle Avoiding Vehicle using Arduino




Introduction:

The concept of Mobile Robot is fast evolving and the number of mobile robots and their complexities are increasing with different applications. There are many types of mobile robot navigation techniques like path planning, self – localization and map interpreting. An Obstacle Avoiding Robot is a type of autonomous mobile robot that avoids collision with unexpected obstacles. In this project, an Obstacle Avoiding Robot is designed. It is an Arduino based robot that uses Ultrasonic range finder sensors to avoid collisions. The design allows the robot to navigate in unknown environment by avoiding collisions, which is a primary requirement for any autonomous mobile robot. The application of Obstacle Avoiding robot is not limited and it is used in most of the military organization now which helps carry out many risky jobs that cannot be done by any soldier.


Components Used:

1. ULTRASONIC SENSOR: It calculates the time taken by the waves to come back after striking the surface using oscilloscope. Using the time calculated we can find the distance between the vehicle and obstacle.




2.L298N DRIVER MODULE: The L298N is an integrated monolithic circuit in a 15- lead Multiwatt and PowerSO20 packages. It is a high voltage, high current dual full-bridge driver de-signed to accept standard TTL logic level sand drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, DC and stepping motors. Two enable inputs are provided to enable or disable the device independently of the input signals .The emitters of the lower transistors of each bridge are connected together rand the corresponding external terminal can be used for the connection of an external sensing resistor. An additional Supply input is provided so that the logic works at a lower voltage.




3.ARDUINO UNO: Arduino Uno is an Atmega 328p microcontroller based prototyping board. It has 14 digital I/O pins out of which 6 pins are used in this project.




4.Vehicle Chassis: Made up of wood which is connected with 2 bidirectional motors. These motors work only with the help of L298N driver module which gets the commands from the Arduino board.



Arduino code:

int trigPin = 9;

int echoPin = 10;

int revleft4 = 4;

int fwdleft5 = 5;

int revright6 = 6;

int fwdright7 = 7;

long duration, distance;

void setup()

{

delay(random(500,2000));

Serial.begin(9600);

pinMode(revleft4, OUTPUT);

pinMode(fwdleft5, OUTPUT);

pinMode(revright6, OUTPUT);

pinMode(fwdright7, OUTPUT);

pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT);

pinMode(echoPin, INPUT);

}

void loop()

{

digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);

delayMicroseconds(2);

digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);

delayMicroseconds(10);

duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);

distance = duration / 58.2; delay(10);

if (distance > 19)

{

digitalWrite(fwdright7, HIGH);

digitalWrite(revright6, LOW);

digitalWrite(fwdleft5, HIGH);

digitalWrite(revleft4, LOW);

}

if (distance < 18)

{

digitalWrite(fwdright7, LOW);

digitalWrite(revright6, LOW);

digitalWrite(fwdleft5, LOW);

digitalWrite(revleft4, LOW);

delay(500);

digitalWrite(fwdright7, LOW);

digitalWrite(revright6, HIGH);

digitalWrite(fwdleft5, LOW);

digitalWrite(revleft4, HIGH);

delay(500);

digitalWrite(fwdright7, LOW);

digitalWrite(revright6, LOW);

digitalWrite(fwdleft5, LOW);

digitalWrite(revleft4, LOW);

delay(100);

digitalWrite(fwdright7, HIGH);

digitalWrite(revright6, LOW);

digitalWrite(revleft4, LOW);

digitalWrite(fwdleft5, LOW);

delay(500);

}

}


Conclusion:

The project obstacle avoiding vehicle, the name itself says that it avoids the obstacles and since this is a vehicle it moves. This vehicles have a great application in our daily life. Even the making of the project helps a lot in gaining knowledge regarding the sensors and the driver modules and their working. Even the Arduino code will be much easier to understand.


Applications:

1. THIS VEHICLE CAN BE USED TO CLEAN THE FLOORS AT HOME AUTOMATICALLY, BY SIMPLY CONNECTING A BRUSH FOR THE VEHICLE AT THE BOTTOM.

2.THIS CAN EVEN BE USED AS AN AUTOMATIC LAWN MOWER.

3.USING THE PRINCIPLE, WE CAN EVEN REDUCE ACCIDENTS OF THE VEHICLES BY SIMPLY INSTALLING IT IN THE VEHICLE ESPECIALLY IN THE PARKING AREAS.


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