top of page

AUTOMATIC FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM




OBJECTIVE

The objective of this project is to create a fire Control System capable of detecting fire and extinguishing it as well. As fire accidents are prone to happen anywhere at any time. It is necessary to have a Fire Control system. Also, our project can work according to the source of fire differently. Such as fire accidents due to combustible fuels and due to short circuit of electricity needs to be handled differently. Our Project will be a smaller version of the idea. The basis working principle is based on a typical control system.


Main causes for outbreak of Fire

● Missing or non-functional electrical fire alarm.

● Non-functional hand fire extinguishers or their bad location in terms of accessibility at the time of fire

● Missing, capacity-insufficient or unmaintained fire hydrants

● Technical defects in electrical installations or other equipment

● Inflammables are hugely used like Fluxes and Tires as seats.


COMPONENTS

1. Arduino UNO

2. LM 35 (Temperature sensor)

3. Gas Sensor

4. Resistor

5. Piezo Buzzer

6. 16x2 LCD Module

7. Servo Motors

8. BO Motor


Construction and Working:

In this circuit we use Arduino, Servos, temperature sensors, gas sensors, 16 ×2 LCD, LED’s, buzzer, motor, potentiometer. Here we use two gas and temperature sensors to get input from two different places in work space, that means when there is a fire accident at that particular area sensors get activated and actuators (motors and servoes) get its respective output. The connection is made as shown in the figure.


Pin connection description:

⮚ All the power pins of sensors and actuators are connected to 5V pin in Arduino and all ground pins are connected to ground points.

⮚ Vout of temperature sensor 1 and 2 are connected to analog pins A1 and A3 respectively because they take analog inputs.

⮚ The input pins of gas sensor 1 and 2 are connected to analog pins A0 and A2 respectively.

⮚ LED’s are connected to digital pins 13.

⮚ Buzzer is connected to digital pin 7.

⮚ Servoes are connected to pins 8 and 9 respectively.

⮚ Pump motor is connected to pin 12.

⮚ The Data pins in LCD display are connected to 5,6,4,1 respectively.

⮚ VCC and VDD pins of LCD are connected to power and ground.

⮚ RS and enable pin is connected to 11 and 12 pins respectively.

⮚ LED pin of LCD is connected to ground because we get output values.

Fig: workspace



When power ON

This control system is designed as per the type of fire occurred. This system has the ability to detect class of fire and behave in extinguishing the fire accordingly. If the fire accident happened due to burning of fire such as paper, wood, cloth and some plastics, in this case we have smoke rather than temperature [Class A Fire]. Hence smoke is dominant so gas sensors get activated and sends data to arduino, it makes water pump motor to pump water (mixed with other components) against the fire, the arrangement of water pipes are made in such a way.

Let’s consider the situation for the fire accident happened due to explosives and short circuit. In this situation temperature is dominant than smoke. In this scenario water is not good fire extinguisher as it can’t control and as well there could be electric shock in case of fire due to short circuit. As this system can make decision based on type of fire, it works effienciently and responds faster.

In this prototype we have gas and temperature sensors to sense. In case of Class A fire detection buzzer activates and gives a siren and LCD display gives “Class A fire detected”. Motor pumps water at fire. In case of Class B 3 LED’s glow and LCD display gives “Class B fire detected”. The servos present turn on the valve to which extinguishing gas cylinder is attached. It works until situation becomes normal. Since its prototype simulation there is no such facility but implementation in real life can be done. It works at a place where fire accident occurred.


Fig: Detection of fire of Class A type with Buzzer warning and controlling of fire with activation of water pump (yellow colour component)


Fig: Detection of fire of Class B type with Blinking of LED warning and controlling of fire with fire extinguisher with activation servo1 and temperature sensor 1 to switch on valve.


Fig: Detection of fire of Class B type with second temperature sensor located at other place and servo2 activates to turn on.


Readings of sensors in serial monitor:




Applications:

❖ Fire can be detected and create an alert in advance.

❖ High reliability and quick in controlling the fire.

❖ Loss due to fire accident can be minimized.

❖ Fire accidents in Industries, Crowed area, Research labs can be controlled.

❖ Automation of fire control system helps to save lives of people.

❖ Circuit can work at low voltages.

❖ Fire extinguishing takes place with respect to class of fire so that system can control easily.


Case Studies:

❖ It is not always possible to prevent fire in a building despite the implementation of fire-protective and operational measures, especially in unforeseeable natural disasters. In general, if fire safety measures are kept at all levels of protection, it is supposed that the building does not collide with fire. If fire safety measures are missing, neglected or non-functional at the time of fire, it often causes big artistic and architectural losses.

57 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All
bottom of page